Biblical Hebrew

Table of Contents

  1. Translating the Hebrew Bible (HB)
    • Online HB Texts
    • Online Hebrew Lexicons
    • Print Hebrew Lexicons & Lexical Aids
  2. Learning Classical Hebrew
    • Hebrew Alphabet
    • Hebrew Courses & Resources
    • Hebrew Grammars & Grammatical Aids
    • Devotionals & Readers

Translating the Hebrew Bible

Most of following Hebrew Bible links are interactive in that mousing over or clicking a word will cause its definition will pop up in English. The first three sites also allow you to search for every occurrence of a word, and they all give you other lexical options if you click around.

Online Hebrew Bibles

  1. Step Bible by Tyndale House. The interface takes a few minutes to learn, but once you know the codes (e.g., OHB, WLC), this site becomes invaluable for translation. You can also make your own interlinear with the English translations of your choice (e.g., NIV, NASB, NET). The OHB (Leningrad Codex based on BHS) and WLC (Westminster Leningrad Codex based on BHS) are both pointed, interactive texts and would be the the text to use for translation.
  2. Lumina Bible by Bible.org. The Hebrew text is unpointed, but it is interactive. This advantage of this site is that it has access to the invaluable NET Bible notes, many of which speak directly to the translation issues you’ll be working through.
  3. Bible Web App by John Dyer. This is the easiest of the three sites to use. It works well on mobile and is the most intuitive of the three. The WLC (Westminster Leningrad Codex) in interactive, the BHS is not. Both are pointed texts.
  4. The Scholarly Bible Ports of the German Bible Society. The publisher of the gold-standard original-language Biblical texts has made the most current editions of following texts available for view online: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS), Rahlfs/Hanhart LXX (OT), NA28 (NT), UBS 5 (NT), and Weber/Gryson Latin Vulgate. The ESV, NETBible, KJV, and Luther’s Revised 1984 German translation are also available. There is no interactivity with the texts, and the critical apparatuses are also lacking, but if you want to read the most current editions of the Bible in the original languages, this is your best online option.
  5. Mechon Mamre’s Hebrew-English Bible (MT & JPS 1917) Not only does this site host online interlinear Hebrew-English/French/Portuguese/Spanish bibles, but they also link to chapter-by-chapter mp3’s of someone reading Scripture in Sephardic-style Hebrew. Their “Torah 101” link is also very helpful.
  6. Scripture4All. The online interlinear uses the Westminster Leningrad Codex for the Hebrew.
  7. Aleppo Codex From the website, “The Aleppo Codex is a full manuscript of the entire Bible, which was written in about 930. For more than a thousand years, the manuscript was preserved in its entirety in important Jewish communities in the Near East: Tiberias, Jerusalem, Egypt, and in the city of Aleppo in Syria. However, in 1947, after the United Nations Resolution establishing the State of Israel, it was damaged in riots that broke out in Syria. At first people thought that it had been completely destroyed. Later, however, it turned out that most of the manuscript had been saved and kept in a secret hiding place. In 1958, the Aleppo Codex was smuggled out of Syria to Jerusalem and delivered to the President of the State of Israel, Izhak Ben-Zvi.”
  8. Codex Sinaiticus Project. From the project bio, “The Codex Sinaiticus Project is an international collaboration to reunite the entire manuscript in digital form and make it accessible to a global audience for the first time. Drawing on the expertise of leading scholars, conservators and curators, the Project gives everyone the opportunity to connect directly with this famous manuscript.”
  9. Codex Alexandrinus.
    • This link takes you to the British Museum Digitised Manuscript reader of the Codex Alexandrinus.
    • This link takes you to the Archive.org reader of volume 2 of the Frederic Kenyon 1909 photographic facsimile of the Codex Alexandrinus.
  10. Codex Vaticanus
    1. This link takes you to the Vatican Digital Library (DigiVatLib) online reader of the Codex Vaticanus.
      This link takes you to the Center for the Study of the New Testament Manuscripts reader of the New Testament portion of the Codex Vaticanus.

Online Hebrew Lexicons

Tyndale House’s 2LetterLookup contains lexicons for ancient Hebrew/Aramaic, Greek, Latin, Syriac, Coptic, Akkadian, & Arabic. For Hebrew, type in the first two letter of the word you are looking for and a list of potential words with glosses appears on the page. Click on any of the glosses and further information will drop down, including the Strong’s number and the option to see the full lexical entry in Gesenius or Jastrow. You can also search for all biblical occurrences of the word in its original language. The site takes you to the Crosswire/SBL/ABS The Bible Tool and fills in the search function using the appropriate Strong’s number.

Print Hebrew Lexicons

  1. Botterweck, Johannes, and Helmer Ringgren. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Revised edition. Translated by John T. Willis. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975. (TDOT)
  2. Brown, Francis, S. R. Driver, and C. A. Briggs, eds. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1907. (BDB)
  3. Clines, David J. A. (ed.). The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew. 8 vols. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993-2016.
  4. Clines, David J. A. (ed.). The Concise Dictionary of Classical Hebrew. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2009.
  5. Even-Shoshan, E. A New Concordance of the Old Testament Using the Hebrew and Aramaic Text. 2nd edition. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1989.
  6. Harris, R. Laird, Archer, and Bruce Waltke. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. 2 vols. Chicago: Moody Press, 1980.
  7. Holladay, William L. A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971.
  8. Jenni, Ernst, and Claus Westermann. Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament. 3 vols. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1997.
  9. Koehler, L. and W. Baumgartner, et al., eds. The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament.3rd ed. 5 vols. Brill, 1994-2001; Study edition, 2 vols. Brill, 2001. (HALOT)
  10. Mounce, William Dm. Mounce’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old & New Testament Words. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006.
  11. VanGemeren, W.A. New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis. Carlisle: Paternoster, 1997. (NIDOTTE)

Learning Classical Hebrew

Hebrew Alphabet

BibTheo on Youtube: Hebrew Alphabet playlist
  1. Alef Bet Songs
  2. Practice Worksheets from AKLAH: The Jewish Children’s Learning Network.
    • The most helpful for you will be the Alef Bet Guide, Vowels, Hebrew Practice, and More Hebrew Practice worksheets. Most of the others use Hebrew cursive writing, whereas my class tends to use block script writing.
  3. Learn the Hebrew Letters, Aish.com’s Interactive Aleph Bet.
    • Click on each letter to hear it pronounced. Note their discussion of Ashkenazic vs. Sefardic pronunciation.
  4. Now Read & Read Again, hosted by Behrman House Publishing.
    • Follow the bouncing ball as the website pronounces short, nonsensical Hebrew syllables.  This is helpful practice at any point in your first year of learning Hebrew.

Hebrew Courses and Resources

  1. Hebrew Class by Miles Van Pelt, hosted by Teknia.com.
    • The first four courses are free (Alphabet, Vowels, Syllabification & Pronunciation, Nouns), and the rest can be purchased. By someone who literally wrote a textbook for learning Hebrew, these four lessons are an excellent place to start learning Hebrew. Teknia also has loads of other free resources; the “Answer key” and “Verbal Paradigms” resources are highly recommended.
  2. Hebrew4Christians, by John J. Parsons.
    • Though I haven’t vetted the various articles and perspective on the website, the “Grammar” section is excellent. John continues to update the site, and has spent a lot of time providing helpful charts and audio files.
  3. Animated Hebrew, by Charles Grebe.
    • Free lessons based on Allen P. Ross’ Introducing Biblical Hebrew, flashcards, Jonah comic graphic novel in Hebrew , lots of supplementary audio, and even an online Hebrew reading group. A labor of love, this website is well-worth your time.
  4. Biblical Hebrew Resources, by Professor Tyler F. Williams.
    • Accomplished author and professor Williams provides his teaching material for free here. Organized into “Learning Biblical Hebrew,” “Mastering Biblical Hebrew,” and “General Hebrew Resources”
  5. Hebrew Language @ the University of Austin
    • The “Biblical Hebrew” page has some really helpful audio/visual elements, as well as excellent, concise notes on various aspects of Biblical Hebrew grammar.
  6. Handy-Dandy Hebrew Grammar Chart, by Dr. Shawn Madden.
    • A free, all-in-one, color-coded, two-page chart of the basic paradigms of Biblical Hebrew. Zondervan’s Biblical Hebrew Laminated Sheet does something similar, and is also worth checking out.
  7. Rabbi Abraham Shmeulof reading the Hebrew Scriptures in Hebrew. The Academy of Ancient Languages organized the mp3 of Rabbi Abraham Shmeulof’s reading of the entire Hebrew Scriptures into an easy-to-use format. You can listed by book or by chapter. Thanks to John Manguno for pointing me to this resource.
  8. Hebrew Vocabulary mp3 HebrewVocab.tumblr.com hosts mp3s of Dr. Terance Espinoza reading the vocaulary list by frequency for his introduction to Bibical Hebrew courses. The vocabulary lists are 25 words long each and are organized by frequency.
  9. Jonah in Hebrew, by J. Ted Blakley
    • The first book people usually translate after their first year of Hebrew is Jonah or Ruth. This resource page has everything you’d need to work through the Hebrew text of Jonah.
  10. Dramatic Recitation: The Book of Jonah (with English subtitles), by Lecturer Elizabeth Groves.
    • An excellent one-woman show, lasting approximately 14 minutes.
  11. Memrise, Quizlet, and Anki are three excellent flashcard programs that work on your phone, tablet, and computer. Lots of people have posted Hebrew vocabulary flashcards sets. Teknia.com’s Flashworks is also helpful, and I’ve had success with it on both Mac and PC, but it does not appear to work on mobile. Teknia does offer its own set of Greek flashcards for your mobile device for the Anki app.
  12. YouTube playlists on my BibTheo channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDPDMxVROUZ6GxwNN8dRRsA/playlists
  13. YouTube Playlists on my BibleWoot channel:
    • Shirim Ivrit (Hebrew Songs)” I made this playlist so that you learn to hear the Hebrew language. Even if you don’t understand it yet, listening to the cadence will be helpful.
    • Hebrew-English & Judaica” I made this playlist of English & Hebrew/English songs that showcase various aspects of modern Jewish culture. A lot of the songs are parodies of contemporary English pop songs.
  14. BibleWoot Pinterest account currently has four volumes of material for learning Biblical Hebrew:
  15. HaGov (The Lion’s Den) Hebrew Reading Club
    • I put this page together awhile ago when our Hebrew reading club first started working on Jonah.
  16. Hebrew Videos
    • I put this Tumblr together awhile ago based on Hebrew dubbed & subbed movie trailers that are available on YouTube. Some links may have been taken down, but with over 100 videos there are still plenty to view.
BibTheo on YouTube: Hebrew for Hebrew Learners playlist
BibTheo on Youtube: Hebrew-English playlist
BibTheo on YouTube: Rosh Hashanah playlist
BibTheo on YouTube: Sukkot (Tabernacles) playlist
BibTheo on YouTube: Chanukah (Hanukkah) playlist
BibTheo on YouTube: Purim playlist
BibTheo on YouTube: Passover playlist
BibTheo on YouTube: Hebrew Clips playlist

Hebrew Grammars & Grammatical Aids

  1. Anderson, Joseph and Devora Lipshitz. Tall Tales Told & Retold in Biblical Hebrew. Berkeley: EKS Publishing, 1983.
  2. Arnold, Bill T. and John H. Choi, A Guide to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
  3. Baylor Handbook on the Hebrew Text series. 2008-.
  4. Chisholm, Robert B. A Workbook for Intermediate Hebrew: Grammar, Exegesis, and Commentary on Jonah and Ruth. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2006.
  5. Chisholm, Robert B. From Exegesis to Exposition: A Practical Guide to Using Biblical Hebrew. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1998.
  6. Cowley, A.E., and E. Kautzsch (eds.). Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar. 2nd Eng. edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1910.
  7. Dallaire, Hélène. Biblical Hebrew: A Living Language. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2016.
  8. Dobson, John H. Learn Biblical Hebrew. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2005.
  9. Fuller, Russell T. and Kyoungwon Choi. Invitation to Biblical Hebrew Syntax: An Intermediate Grammar. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2017.
  10. ———-. Invitation to Biblical Hebrew: A Beginning Grammar. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2006.
  11. ———-. Invitation to Biblical Hebrew Workbook. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2006.
  12. Fullilove, William. A Graded Reader of Biblical Hebrew: Mastering Different Literary Styles from Simple to Advanced. Philipsburg, NJ: P&R, 2018.
  13. ———-. Introduction to Hebrew: A Guide for Learning and Using Biblical Hebrew. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R, 2017.
  14. Goldstein, Jessica W., The First Hebrew Reader: Guided Selections from the Hebrew Bible.3d ed. Berkeley: EKS Publishing Co, 2005.
  15. Goodrick, Edward W. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek: A Guide to the Language Tools. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1980.
  16. Hoffer, Victoria, Biblical Hebrew: Supplement for Enhanced Comprehension. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005.
  17. Joüon, Paul and T. Muraoka. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. 3rd of the 2nd ed. with corrections. Subsidia Biblica 27. Rome: Gregorian & Biblical Press, 2006.
  18. Kelley, Page H. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992.
  19. Kurtz, Karl V. and Rebekah J. Josberger. Learning Biblical Hebrew: Reading for Comprehension: An Introductory Grammar. Bellingham, WA: Lexham, 2018.
  20. ———-. Learning Biblical Hebrew Workbook: A Graded Reader with Exercises. Bellingham, WA: Lexham, 2019.
  21. Lambdin, Thomas O. Introduction to Biblical Hebrew. New York: Scribner, 1971.
  22. Mitchel, Larry A. A Student’s Vocabulary for Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic: Frequency Lists with Definitions, Pronunciation Guide, and Index. Updated edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2017.
  23. Miller-Naudé, Cynthia and Jacobus Naudé, eds. The Syntax of Volitives in Biblical Hebrew and Amarna Canaanite Prose. LSAWS. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2014.
  24. Muraoka, Takamitsu. A Biblical Hebrew Reader: with an Outline Grammar. Leuven: Peeters, 2017.
  25. Murphy, Todd J. Pocket Dictionary for the Study of Biblical Hebrew. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2003.
  26. Overland, Paul. Learning Biblical Hebrew Interactively. 2 vols. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2016.
  27. Pratico, Gary D. and Miles V. Van Pelt. Basics of Biblical Hebrew: Grammar. 3rd edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2019.
  28. ———-. Basics of Biblical Hebrew: Workbook. 2nd edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2019.
  29. ———-. The Vocabulary Guide to Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic. 2nd edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2019.
  30. Putnam, Frederic Clarke. A New Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2010.
  31. Ross, Allen P. Introducing Biblical Hebrew. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001.
  32. Seow, C. L. A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew. Revised edition. Nashville: Abingdon, 1995.
  33. Silzer, Peter James and Thomas John Finley. How Biblical Languages Work: A Student’s Guide to Learning Hebrew and Greek. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2004.
  34. Simon, Ethelyn, Linda Motzkin & Irene Resnikoff. The First Hebrew Primer: The Adult Beginner’s Path to Biblical Hebrew. 3rd edition. Revised and expanded. Berkeley: EKS Publishing, 2005.
  35. Simon, Ethelyn, Linda Motzkin & Irene Resnikoff. Answer Book: The First Hebrew Primer. 3rd edition. Berkeley: EKS Publishing, 2005.
  36. Simon, Ethelyn and Joseph Anderson. Teach Yourself to Read Hebrew. Revised edition. Berkeley: EKS Publishing, 2008.
  37. Steinmann, Andrew E. Intermediate Biblical Hebrew: A Reference Grammar with Charts and Exercises. St Louis, MO: Concordia, 2009.
  38. Stuart, Douglas. Old Testament Exegesis. A Handbook for Students and Pastors. 3rd edition. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2001.
  39. United Bible Societies Handbooks on the Old Testament. 21 vols. United Bible Societies, 1973-ongoing.
  40. Van Der Merwe, Christo H. J., Jackie A. Naudé, and Jan H. Kroeze. A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. 1999.
  41. Van Pelt, Miles V. English Grammar to Ace Biblical Hebrew. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2010
  42. Vance, Donald R. A Hebrew Reader for Ruth. Peabody: Hendrickson, 2003.
  43. Waltke, B.K., and M. O’Connor. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1990.
  44. Williams, Michael. The Biblical Hebrew Companion for Bible Software Users: Grammatical Terms Explained for Exegesis. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2015.
  45. Zvi, Ehud Ben, Maxine Hancock and Richard Beinert, Readings in Biblical Hebrew: An Intermediate Textbook. New Haven: Yale, 1993.

Devotionals & Readers

  1. Baker, David W. and Elaine A. Heath. More Light on the Path: Daily Scripture Readings in Hebrew and Greek. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1999.
  2. Eng, Milton and Lee M. Fields, eds. Devotions on the Hebrew Bible: 54 Reflections to Inspire and Instruct. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2015.
  3. Van Pelt, Miles V. Graded Reader of Biblical Hebrew: A Guide to Reading the Hebrew Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006.
  4. Biblical Commentaries such as the Word Biblical Commentary and the International Critical Commentary include detailed discussion of the Hebrew text. See BibTheo.com/commentaries for a detailed list.

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