Biblical (Koine) Greek


Table of Contents

  1. Translating the Greek NT (GNT)
    • GNT Texts In Print
    • GNT Texts Online
    • Greek Lexicons Online
    • Greek Lexicons & Lexical Aids In Print
  2. Learning NT (Koine) Greek
    • Greek Alphabet
    • Greek Courses & Resources
    • Greek Grammars & Grammatical Aids
    • Devotionals & Readers

Translating the GNT

Major GNT Texts in Print

  1. Aland, Barbara, Kurt Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo M. Martini, and Bruce M. Metzger, eds. Novum Testamentum Graece. 28th revised ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012. (NA 28).
  2. Aland, Barbara, Kurt Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo M. Martini, and Bruce M. Metzger, eds. The Greek New Testament. 5th revised ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2014. (UBS 5)
  3. Holmes, Michael W., ed. The Greek New Testament: SBL Edition. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. 2013. (SBLGNT)
  4. Jongkind, Dirk, ed. The Greek New Testament. Cambridge: Tyndale House, 2017.

Greek New Testaments Online

The first three online Bibles are interactive in that mousing over or clicking a word will cause its definition will pop up in English. All three sites also allow you to search for every occurrence of a word, and they all give you other lexical options if you click around.

  1. Step Bible by Tyndale House. The interface takes a few minutes to learn, but once you know the codes (e.g., SBLG, WHNU, Nestle), this site becomes invaluable for translation. You can also make your own interlinear with the translations of your choice (e.g., NIV, NASB, NET). The SBLGNT and WHNU (Westcott & Hort with Nestle-Aland 27 & UBS 4 variants) are the two interactive GNT texts that you would want to use for translation.
  2. Lumina Bible by Bible.org. This advantage of this site is that it has access to the invaluable NET Bible notes, many of which speak directly to the translation issues you’ll be working through.
  3. Bible Web App by John Dyer. This is the easiest of the three sites to use. It works well on mobile and is the most intuitive of the three. The three major GNT texts on this site are the SBLGNT, Tischendorf’s 8th edition, and Westcott & Hort.
  4. The Scholarly Bible Ports of the German Bible Society. The publisher of the gold-standard original-language Biblical texts has made the most current editions of following texts available for view online: NA28 (NT), UBS 5 (NT), BHS (OT), Rahlfs/Hanhart LXX (OT), and Weber/Gryson Latin Vulgate. The ESV, NETBible, KJV, and Luther’s Revised 1984 German translation are also available. There is no oline interactivity with these texts, and the critical apparatuses are also lacking, but if you want to read the most current editions of the Bible in the original languages, this is your best online option.
  5. Scripture4All. The online interlinear uses the Schrivner’ Textus Receptus for the Greek, (due to copyright issues with Nestle-Aland),and Westminster Leningrad Codex for the Hebrew.
  6. Codex Sinaiticus Project. From the project bio, “The Codex Sinaiticus Project is an international collaboration to reunite the entire manuscript in digital form and make it accessible to a global audience for the first time. Drawing on the expertise of leading scholars, conservators and curators, the Project gives everyone the opportunity to connect directly with this famous manuscript.”
  7. Codex Alexandrinus.
    • This link takes you to the British Museum Digitised Manuscript reader of the Codex Alexandrinus.
    • This link takes you to the Archive.org reader of volume 2 of the Frederic Kenyon 1909 photographic facsimile of the Codex Alexandrinus.
  8. Codex Vaticanus
    • This link takes you to the Vatican Digital Library (DigiVatLib) online reader of the Codex Vaticanus.
    • This link takes you to the Center for the Study of the New Testament Manuscripts reader of the New Testament portion of the Codex Vaticanus.
  9. The Center for the Study of the New Testament Manuscripts From the website bio, “On 13 September 2002, Dr. Daniel B. Wallace founded the Center to utilize emerging technologies to preserve and study Greek New Testament manuscripts. During its brief history, CSNTM has collaborated with more than 40 institutions on 4 continents to produce more than 350,000 images of New Testament manuscripts. In the process, the Center has discovered more than 90 New Testament manuscripts. View these images at CSNTM’s digital library.”

Greek Lexicons Online

  1. 2LetterLookup by Tyndale House contains lexicons for ancient Hebrew/Aramaic, Greek, Latin, Syriac, Coptic, Akkadian, & Arabic. For Greek, type in the first few letters of the word you are looking for and the appropriate page of the Perseus Digital Library’s  Perseus 4.0/Perseus Hopper Headword Search will appear. Click on the appropriate lexicon (LSJ or Middle Liddell are the better lexicons for biblical studies, though note their limitations), and the lexical entry for that word will pop up.
  2. Bill Mounce has a free search function for a basic Greek dictionary on his site. Type in the Greek word and the site gives you helpful glosses, the Strong’s and GK numbers, the number of times the word is used in the GNT, and a readable list of all the passages  where the word occurs in the GNT.

Greek Lexica and Lexical Aids In Print

  1. Balz, Horst, and Gerhard Schneider, Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament. 3 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990. (EDNT)
  2. Bauer, Walter. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 3rd ed. Edited and revised by F.W. Danker. Translated and adapted by W.F. Arndt, F.T. Gingrich, and F.W. Danker. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. (BDAG)
  3. Brown, Colin, ed. The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology. 4 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1975-1978. (NIDNTT)
  4. Gilbrant, Thoralf, and Ralph W. Harris, eds. Complete Biblical Library. 39 vols. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 1990. (CBL)
  5. Kittel, Gerhard, and Gerhard Friedrich, eds. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Translated and Edited by G. W. Bromiley. 10 volumes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964-1976. (Kittel, 1 vol. edition known as Little Kittel)
  6. Liddel, H.G., and R. Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. Rev. ed. Aug. by H.S. Jones. 9th rev. ed. Oxford: Clarendon 1996. (LSJ)
  7. Louw, J. and E. Nida, eds. A Greek-English Lexicon based on Semantic Domains. 2nd ed. 2 vols. New York: United Bible Society, 1989. (L&N)
  8. Moulton, James H. and George Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament: Illustrated from the Papyri and other Non-Literary Sources. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1930. (Moulton-Milligan)
  9. Mounce, William Dm. Mounce’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old & New Testament Words. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006.
  10. Silva, Moisés, New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis. 5 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2014. (NIDNTTE)
  11. Spicq, Ceslas. Theological Lexicon of the New Testament. Translated by James Ernest. 3 vols. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1994. (TLNT)

Translating NT(Koine)Greek

Greek Alphabet

  • Greek Alphabet, by The Singing Grammarian.
    • Erasmian pronunciation conventions would say “ch-ee” (ch as in the German Bach) rather than “key” for the χ, but otherwise this is a helpful song for learning the Greek Alphabet. You can hear Bill Mounce sing the same song, but with the full Erasmian pronunciation, at teknia.com .
  • This uses a modern Greek pronunciation, but the video is so well done that it’s included here.
  • “The (koine) Greek Alphabet Song, Danny Zacharias, The Singing Grammarian: Learn Greek by Song

Greek Courses & Resources

  1. Teknia
    • Billing itself as “Your Home for Learning New Testament Greek,” this website continues to get even better over time. Bill Mounce, author of Basics of Biblical Greek, continues to develop free resources for the promotion of Biblical Greek learning.
  2. Institute of Biblical Greek
  3. Greek Language & Linguistics
    • This is another outstanding, comprehensive website with free resources and even a free online course (Instructor Michael Palmer) for learning Hellenistic/Koine Greek.
  4. Koine Greek Audio Samples The link has audio for 1 John 1; Gospel of John 1:1-18; 20:1-31.

Greek Grammars and Grammatical Aids

  1. Baylor Handbook on the Greek Text series. Waco: Baylor University Press, 2003-.
  2. Black, David Alan. Learn to Read New Testament Greek. Third edition. Nashville: B&H Publishing Group, 2009.
  3. ———-. It’s Still Greek to Me: An Easy-to-Understand Guide to Intermediate Greek. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1998.
  4. Campbell, Constantine R. Advances in the Study of Greek: New Insights for Reading the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2015.
  5. Coneybeare, F. C. and St. George Stock. Grammar of Septuagint Greek. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1995. Reprint of Grammar of Septuagint Greek. Ginn and Company: Boston, 1905.
  6. Croy, N. Clayton. A Primer of Biblical Greek. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2011.
  7. DeMoss, Matthew S. Pocket Dictionary for the Study of New Testament Greek. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2010.
  8. Dobson, John H. Learn New Testament Greek. 3rd edition. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2005.
  9. Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament series. Nashville: B&H, 2010-.
  10. Farrell, Hobert. A Practical Workbook to J. Gresham Machen’s New Testament Greek for Beginners. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2003.
  11. Goodrick, Edward W. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek: A Guide to the Language Tools. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1980.  
  12. Guthrie, Geroge H. and J. Scott Duvall. Biblical Greek Exegesis: A Graded Approach to Learning Intermediate and Advanced Greek. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1998.
  13. Gutiérrez, Ben and Cara L. Murphy. Learn to Read New Testament Greek: Workbook. Supplemental Exercises for Greek Grammar Students. Nashville: B & H, 2009.
  14. Hewett, James Allen. New Testament Greek: A Beginning and Intermediate Grammar. Revised and expanded edition. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2009.
  15. Huffman, Douglas S. The Handy Guide to New Testament Greek: Grammar, Syntax, Diagramming. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2012.
  16. Köstenberger, Andreas K, Benjamin L. Merkle, and Robert L. Plummer. Going Deeper with New Testament Greek: An Intermediate Study of the Grammar and Syntax of the New Testament. Nashville: B&H, 2016.
  17. Laansma, Jon C. and Randall X. Gauthier. The Handy Guide to Difficult and Irregular Greek Verbs: Aids for Readers of the Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2017.
  18. Lamerson, Samuel. English Grammar to Ace New Testament Greek. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2016.
  19. Machen, J. Gresham and Dan G. MaCartney, New Testament Greek for Beginners. 2nd edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2004.
  20. Merkle, Benjamin L. Greek for Life: Strategies for Learning, Retaining, and Reviving New Testament Greek. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2017.
  21. Metzger, Bruce M. Lexical Aids for Students of New Testament Greek. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1998.
  22. Moule, C.F.D. An Idiom Book of New Testament Greek. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1959.
  23. Mounce, William D. Basis of Biblical Greek: Grammar. 4th edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2019.
  24. ———-. Basis of Biblical Greek: Workbook. 4th edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2019.
  25. ———-. Biblical Greek: A Compact Guide. 2nd edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2019.
  26. Porter, Stanley E., Jeffrey T. Reed, and Matthew Brook O’Donnell. Fundamentals of New Testament Greek. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2010.
  27. Porter, Stanley E. Idioms of the Greek New Testament. 2nd edition. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1992.
  28. Robinson, A. T. A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in Light of Historical Research. New York: Hodder & Stoughton, 1914.
  29. Runge, Steven E. Discourse Grammar of the Greek New Testament: A Practical Introduction for Teaching and Exegesis. Peabody: Hendrickson, 2010.
  30. Silzer, Peter James and Thomas John Finley. How Biblical Languages Work: A Student’s Guide to Learning Hebrew and Greek. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2004.
  31. Strauss, Mark L. The Biblical Greek Companion for Bible Software Users: Grammatical Terms Explained for Exegesis. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2016.
  32. Thompson, David L. Study Guide for J. Gresham Machen’s New Testament Greek for Beginners. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 1980.
  33. Trenchard, Warren C. The Complete Vocabulary Guide to the Greek New Testament. Revised edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1998.
  34. United Bible Societies Handbook Series: New Testament. 20 vols. 1961-1995.
  35. Wallace, Daniel B. Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1997.

Devotions and Readers

  1. Baker, David W. and Elaine A. Heath. More Light on the Path: Daily Scripture Readings in Hebrew and Greek. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1999.
  2. Bandy, Alan S. A Greek Reader’s Apostolic Fathers. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2018.
  3. Duvall, J. Scott and Verlyn Verbrugge, Devotions on the Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2012.
  4. Jackson, Paul N., ed. Devotions on the Greek New Testament. Vol. 2. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2017.
  5. McLean, B.H. Hellenistic and Biblical Greek: A Graduated Reader. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
  6. Mounce, William D. A Graded Reader of Biblical Greek. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996.

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