Majority World Theology

An Introductory Reader’s Guide to Majority World Theology, by Dr. Terance Espinoza.

The term “Majority World Theology” is broadly defined here as Christian theology by or about people whose social location is outside Europe and North America. Terms such as Majority World, Two-Thirds World, Third World, Multicultural, Minority, Minoritized, Marginalized, and Global Theology have all been used as part of this theological tradition. The opinions and goals in this body of literature are varied, and there is no single theological representative to rule them all. The purpose of this list is to provide resources that speak from particular social locations and that will contribute to becoming more well-read in this broad area of theological reflection. For more specific social location theological reflection, see the bibliographies at,,,,, and


  1. Bailey, Randall C., Tat-siong Benny Liew, and Fernando F. Segovia, eds. They Were All Together in One Place? Toward Minority Biblical Criticism. Atlanta: SBL Press, 2009.
    • See the continuation of this work in Tat-siong Benny Liew and Fernando F. Segovia, eds. Reading Biblical Texts Together: Pursuing Minoritized Biblical Criticism. Atlanta: SBL Press, 2022.
  2. Dyrness, William A. and Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen, eds. Global Dictionary of Theology: A Resource for the Worldwide Church. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2008.
  3. Green, Gene L., Stephen T. Pardue, and K. K. Yeo, eds. Majority World Theology: Christian Doctrine in Global Context. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2020.
  4. Keener, Craig and M. Daniel Carroll R., Global Voices: Reading the Bible in the Majority World. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2013).
  5. Lee, Max J. “Reading the Bible Interculturally: An Invitation to the Evangelical Covenant Church and Evangelical Christianity.The Covenant Quarterly. 73 (2015): 4-14. The journal’s entire issue was devoted to exploring the ideas set forth in Dr. Lee’s introductory article.
  6. Raheb, Mitri and Mark A. Lamport, eds. The Rowman & Littlefield Handbook of Emerging Theologies from the Global South. Lanham, MT: Rowman & Littlefield. (forthcoming)
  7. Roth, Federico Alfredo, Justin Marc Smith, Kirsten Sonkyo Oh, ALice Yafeh-Deigh, & Kay Higuera Smith. Reading the Bible Around the World: A Student’s Guide to Global Hermeneutics. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2022.


  1. McCaulley, Esau and Osvaldo Padilla, eds. Reading the New Testament in Color: A Multiethnic Commentary on the New Testament. Downers Grove: InterVarsity. (forthcoming)
  2. Rhoads, David, ed. From Every People and Nation: The Book of Revelation in Intercultural Perspective. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2005.
  3. Segovia, Fernando and R. S. Sugirtharajah, eds. A Postcolonial Commentary on the New Testament Writings. New Work: T&T Clark, 2007.
  4. Stephanous, Andrea Zaki, ed. Arabic Contemporary Commentary. Cairo: Dar El-Thaqafa, 2018.
  5. Tucker, J. Brian and Coleman A. Baker, eds. Social Identity Commentary on the New Testament. London: T&T Clark, 2014.


  1. Bantu, Vince L. A Multitude of All Peoples; Engaging Ancient Christianity’s Global Identity. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2020.
  2. Branson, Mark and Juan F. Martinez. Churches, Cultures and Leadership: A Practical Theology of Congregations and Ethnicities. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2011.
  3. Cha, Peter T. “Doing Theology in a Multicultural Theological Community.” Torch Trinity Journal 10 (2007): 95-106.
  4. Conde-Frazier, Elizabeth, S. Steve Kang, and Gary A. Parrett. A Many Colored Kingdom: Multicultural Dynamics for Spiritual Formation. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2004.
  5. De La Torre, Miguel A., Reading the Bible from the Margins. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2002.
  6. Dyrness, William A. Learning about Theology from the Third World. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990
  7. Estrada, Rodolfo Galvan, III. A Pneumatology of Race in the Gospel of John: An Ethnocritical Study. Eugene, OR: Pickwick, 2019.
  8. Ehrensperger, Kathy and J. Brian Tucker, eds. Reading Paul in Context: Explorations in Identity Formation. Essays in Honour of William S. Campbell. Library of New Testament Studies Monograph Series 428. New York: T&T Clark, 2010.
  9. Levison, John R. and Priscilla Pope-Levison, eds. Return to Babel: Global Perspectives on the Bible. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1999.
  10. Liew, Tat-siong Benny and Fernando F. Segovia, eds. Reading Biblical Texts Together: Pursuing Minoritized Biblical Criticism. Atlanta: SBL Press, 2022.
  11. Lim, Kar Yong. Metaphors and Social Identity Formation in Paul’s Letters to the Corinthians. Eugene, OR: Pickwick, 2017
  12. Mitzi J. Smith and Yung Suk Kim. Toward Decentering the New Testament: A Reintroduction. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2018.
  13. Majority World Commentary Series
  14. Metzger, Paul Louis, Consuming Jesus: Beyond Race and Class Divisions in a Consumer Church. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007.        
  15. Moore, Stephen D. and Fernando F. Segovia, eds. Postcolonial Biblical Criticism: Interdisciplinary Intersections. New York: T&T Clark, 2005.
  16. Punt, Jeremy and Marius J. Nel, eds. Reading Writing Right: Essays Presented in Honour of Prof Elna Mouton. Stellenbosch, South Africa: Sun Press, 2018.
  17. Segovia, Fernando F. and Mary Ann Tolbert, eds.  Social Location and Biblical interpretation in the United States. Vol. 1 of Reading from this Place. Edited by Fernando F. Segovia and Mary Ann Tolbert. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995.
  18. Segovia, Fernando F. and Mary Ann Tolbert, eds.  Social Location and Biblical interpretation in Global Perspective. Vol. 2 of Reading from this Place. Edited by Fernando F. Segovia and Mary Ann Tolbert. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995.
  19. Stephanous, Adrea Zaki, ed. Arabic Christian Theology: A Contemporary Global Evangelical Perspective. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2019.
  20. Sugirtharajah, R.S, ed. Voices from the Margins: Interpreting the Bible in the Third World. 25th Anniversary Edition. Maryknoll: Orbis, 2016.  
  21. Van Opstal, Sanra Maria. The Next Worship: Glorifying God in a Diverse World. Grand Rapids: InterVarsity, 2015.

Note to students

As with all research bibliographies, resources are included not because they are endorsed but because they make a contribution to the discipline in a meaningful way. It is not expected that you will agree with everything in these resources or with everything the authors say in other venues. But it is important to read with a generous and open attitude in order to understand what they are saying so that whether you agree or disagree with them, you are able to articulate their views in a fair and clear manner.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s