Bibliography for Biblical & Theological Studies

Table of Contents

  1. Online Bibliography Guides
  2. Introductions
    1. OT Introductions
    2. NT Introductions
  3. Dictionaries
    1. Bible Dictionaries
    2. IVP Bible Dictionary Series
  4. Commentaries
    1. Introductory Commentaries
    2. Technical Commentaries
    3. Specialized Commentaries
  5. Journals
    1. Abstracts & Out-of-Print Journals
    2. Journal Indices
    3. Journal Indexing and Abstracting Services
  6. Monographs and Book Series
  7. Socio-Historical Studies
  8. Literary Analysis
  9. Linguistic Analysis
    1. Greek-English Lexica
    2. Hebrew-English Lexica
    3. Greek-English Theological Lexica
    4. Hebrew-English Theological Lexica
    5. Concordances
    6. Online Lexical Sources
  10. Primary Sources (Ancient Texts)
    1. Ancient Near Eastern Texts
    2. Introduction to Jewish Literature
    3. OT Apocrypha
    4. OT Pseudepigrapha
    5. Septuagint (LXX)
    6. Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS)
    7. Josephus
    8. Philo
    9. NT Apocrypha
    10. Greco-Roman Literature
    11. Numismatics (Coins)
    12. Apostolic Fathers
  11. Resources to Avoid in a Research Paper

Online Bibliography Guides

  1. Society of Biblical Literature Educational (Web) Resources
  2. Denver Seminary’s NT Exegesis Bibliography, by William W. Klein, Craig L. Blomberg, David L. Mathewson, & Erin M. Heim. Book-by-book bibliographic recommendations are included.
  3. NT Gateway, by Mark Goodacre
  4. Denver Seminary’s OT Exegesis Bibliography, by M. Daniel Carroll R., Hélène Dallaire, and Richard S. Hess (OT). Annotated and including book-by-book bibliographic recommendations.
  5. OT Gateway, by Roy Nicholdon
  6. The Biblioblog Top 50
  7. Biblical Studies Carnival
  8. All-in-One Biblical Resources Search
  9. Biblical Studies: An Internet Resource for Studying the Bible
  10. Open Access Scholarly Journals in English
  11. Tyndale House: Residential Centre for Biblical Research – Online Resources
  12. Tyndale Seminary Reading Rooms
  13. BibTheoTools.Tumblr.com. This is my brief, annotated research guide for pastors and students.
  14. BibTheo.com

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OT Introductions

  1. Anderson, Bernhard W., Steven Bishop, and Judith H. Newman. Understanding the Old Testament. 5th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2007.
  2. Arnold, Bill T., and Bryan E. Beyer. Encountering the Old Testament: A Christian Survey. 3rd Edition. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2015.
  3. Birch, Bruce C., Walter Brueggemann, Terence E. Fretheim, and David L. Petersen. A Theological Introduction to the Old Testament. 2nd Edition. Nashville: Abingdon, 2005.
  4. Boadt, Lawrence. Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction. 2nd Edition. Revised and Updated by Richard Clifford and Daniel Harrington. New York: Paulist, 1984
  5. Coogan, Michael D. The Old Testament: A Historical and Literary Introduction to the Hebrew Scriptures. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.
  6. Goldingay, John. An Introduction to the Old Testament: Exploring Text, Approaches & Issues. Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2015.
  7. Gottwald, Norman K., The Hebrew Bible: A Brief Socio-Literary Introduction. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2009.
  8. Hill, Andrew E. and John H. Walton. A Survey of the Old Testament. 3rd Edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009.
  9. ———-. Old Testament Today: A Journey from Ancient Context to Contemporary Relevance. 2nd Edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2013.
  10. Lasor, William Sanford, David Allan Hubbard, & Frederic William Bush. Old Testament Survey: the message, form, and background of the Old TestamentGrand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982.
  11. Longman, Tremper III, Raymond B. Dillard. An Introduction to the Old Testament. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006
  12. Lucas, Ernest C. Exploring the Old Testament: A Guide to the Psalms & Wisdom Literature. Exploring the Bible Vol. 3. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2008.
  13. Matthews, Victor H. and James C. Moyer. The Old Testament: Text and Context. 3rd Edition. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2012.
  14. McConville, J. Gordon. Exploring the Old Testament: A Guide to the Prophets. Exploring the Bible Vol. 4. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2008.
  15. Satterthwaite, Philip E. and J. Gordon McConville. Exploring the Old Testament: A Guide to the Historical Books. Exploring the Bible Vol. 1. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2012.
  16. Wenham, Gordon J. Exploring the Old Testament: A Guide to the Pentateuch. Exploring the Bible Vol. 1. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press 2008.

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NT Introductions

  1. Achtemeier, Paul J., Joel B. Green, and Marianne Meye Thompson. Introducing the New Testament: Its Literature and Theology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001.
  2. Brown, Raymond. An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Doubleday, 1997.
  3. Burge, Gary M., Lynn H. Cohick and Gene L. Green, The New Testament in Antiquity: A survey of the New Testament within its cultural contexts. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009.
  4. Carson, Douglas A. and Leon Morris. An Introduction to the New Testament. 2nd edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2005.
  5. Carter, Warren and Amy-Jill Levine. The New Testament: Methods and Meanings. Nashville: Abingdon, 2013.
  6. deSilva, David A. An Introduction to the New Testament: Context, Methods and Ministry Formation. Downers Grove: IVP, 2004.
  7. Hagner, Donald A. The New Testament: A Theological and Historical Introduction. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2012.
  8. Johnson, Luke Timothy, and Todd C. Penner, The Writings of the New Testament: An Interpretation. Revised Edition. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2002.
  9. Marshall, I. Howard, Travis Stephen, and Ian Paul, Exploring the New Testament: A Guide to the Letters & Revelation. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2011.
  10. Powell, Mark Allen. Introducing the New Testament: A Historical, Literary, and Theological Survey. 2d ed. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2018.
  11. Wenham, David and Steve Walton. Exploring the New Testament: A Guide to the Gospels & Acts. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2011.
  12. Witherington, Ben III. Invitation to the New Testament: First Things. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

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Bible Dictionaries

  1. Bromiley, G.W., et al. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Rev. ed. 4 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979-1988.
  2. Brown, Colin. The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology. Exeter: Grand Rapids, 1975-1978.  *but see Silva, below, for updated & revised edition.
  3. Cross, F.L., and E.A. Livingstone, ed. Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  4. Dyrness, William A. and Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen, Global Dictionary of Theology: A Resource for the Worldwide Church. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2008.
  5. Elwell, Walter A., ed. Baker Theological Dictionary of the Bible. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996.
  6. Freedman, D.N., ed. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000.
  7. Freedman, D.N., ed. Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. 6 vols. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008.
  8. Hammond, N.G.L., and H.H. Scullard, eds. Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford, 1970.
  9. Metzger, Bruce M. and Michael D. Coogan, The Oxford Companion to the Bible. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
  10. Powell, Mark Allan, ed. HarperCollins Bible Dictionary. Revised and updated. 3rd ed. New York: HarperCollins, 2011. [This updated edition was a project of the Society of Biblical Literature and represents the best of cutting-edge biblical scholarship.]
  11. Richards, Lawrence O. Expository Dictionary of Bible Words. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985. 
  12. Sakenfeld, Katharine Doob, ed. The New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. 5 vols. Nashville: Abingdon, 2009.
  13. Schiffman, Lawrence, and James C. VanderKam, eds. Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis,
  14. Silva, Moisés, New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis. 5 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2014.
  15. VanGemeren, W.A. New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis. Carlisle: Paternoster, 1997.
  16. Vanhoozer, Kevin J., ed. Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2005.

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IVP Bible Dictionary Series

  1. Alexander, T.D., and D.W. Baker, Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2002.
  2. Arnold, Bill T. and H.G.M. Williamson. Dictionary of the Old Testament: Historical Books. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2005.
  3. Longman, Termper III. Dictionary of the Old Testament: Wisdom, Poetry & Writings. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2008.
  4. Boda, Mark J. and Gordon McConville. Dictionary of the Old Testament: Prophets. Downders Grove: InterVarsity, 2012.
  5. Green, Joel B., S. McKnight, & I. H. Marshall. Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. 2nd edition. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2013. 
  6. Hawthorne, G. & R.P. Martin, Dictionary of Paul and his Letters. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1993. 
  7. Martin, R.P. and P.H. Davids, Dictionary of the Later New Testament & Its Developments. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1997.
  8. Evans, C.A. and S.E. Porter, Dictionary of New Testament Background. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2000.

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Commentaries

Introductory Commentaries

See BibTheo.com/commentaries for commentary descriptions & links.

  1. Barton, John, and John Muddiman. Oxford Bible Commentary. New York: Oxford University Press
  2. Biblical Theology for Christian Proclamation
  3. Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible
  4. Concordia Commentary
  5. Brown, Raymond E., et al., eds. New Jerome Bible Commentary. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1995.
  6. Expositor’s Bible Commentary
  7. Interpretation
  8. New American Commentary (NAC)
  9. New Beacon Bible Commentary
  10. New Covenant Commentary Series
  11. The NIV Application Commentary (NIVAC)
  12. New Interpreter’s Bible (NIB)
  13. The New Testament For Everyone
  14. The Old Testament For Everyone
  15. Pillar New Testament Commentary
  16. Sheffield Biblical Guides (NTG & OTG)
  17. The Story of God Bible Commentary (SOGBC)
  18. Teach the Text
  19. Two Horizons New Testament Commentary
  20. Two Horizons Old Testament Commentary
  21. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries
  22. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries
  23. Understanding the Bible
  24. Westminster Bible Companion

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Technical Commentaries

  1. Anchor Yale Bible Commentary (AYBC)
  2. Apollos Old Testament Commentary
  3. Baker Commentary on the OT Wisdom & Psalms
  4. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament
  5. Black’s New Testament Commentary
  6. Continental Commentary
  7. Eerdmans Critical Commentary
  8. Forms of Old Testament Literature
  9. Hermeneia
  10. Historical Commentary on the Old Testament
  11. International Critical Commentary
  12. International Exegetical Commentary on the OT
  13. International Theological Commentary
  14. New Cambridge Bible Commentary
  15. New International Commentary on the New Testament
  16. New International Commentary on the Old Testament
  17. New Testament in Context Commentaries (NTinC)
  18. New Testament Library (NTL)
  19. Old Testament Library (OTL)
  20. Paideia
  21. Reading the New Testament Commentary
  22. Readings: A New Biblical Commentary
  23. Sacra Pagina
  24. Socio-Rhetorical Commentary (SRC)
  25. Wisdom Commentary
  26. Word Biblical Commentary (WBC)
  27. Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (ZECNT)
  28. Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament (ZECOT)

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Specialized Commentaries

  1. The Africa Bible Commentary
  2. Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture
  3. The Bible and Disability: A Commentary
  4. The Church’s Bible
  5. Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament
  6. Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament (EGGNT)
  7. Hellenistic Commentary to the New Testament
  8. Jewish Publication Society Bible Commentaries
  9. New International Greek Testament Commentary (NIGTC)
  10. New Testament Theology
  11. Old Testament Theology
  12. Reformation Commentary on Scripture
  13. Women’s Bible Commentary

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Journals

See BibTheo.com/journals for journal descriptions.

  1. Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies (AJPS)
  2. Biblica
  3. Biblical Theology Bulletin (BTB)
  4. Bibliotheca Sacra
  5. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR)
  6. Catholic Biblical Quarterly (CBQ)
  7. Christian History Magazine
  8. Early Christianity
  9. Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses (ETL)
  10. Éstudios Bíblicos
  11. Études théologiques et religieuses (also here)
  12. Ex Auditu
  13. Filología Neotestamentaria
  14. Harvard Theological Review (HTR)
  15. Hebrew Bible and Ancient Israel (HEBAI)
  16. Horizons in Biblical Theology
  17. Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology (Interp
  18. Journal for the Study of the New Testament (JSNT)
  19. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament (JSOT)
  20. Journal of Biblical and Pneumatological Research (JBPR)
  21. Journal of Biblical Literature(JBL)
  22. Journal of Early Christian Studies (JECS)
  23. Journal of Pentecostal Theology (JPS)
  24. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society (JETS)
  25. Journal of the Jesus Movement in Its Jewish Setting (JJMJS)
  26. Journal of Theological Interpretation
  27. Near Eastern Archaeology (NEA)
  28. Neotestamentica
  29. New Testament Studies (NTS)
  30. Novum Testamentum (NovT)
  31. Pneuma: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies
  32. Revue Biblique
  33. Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament
  34. Scottish Journal of Theology
  35. Studia Theologica: Nordic Journal of Theology
  36. Theologische Rundschau (ThR)
  37. Theologiesche Zeitschrift (ThZ)
  38. Trinity Journal
  39. Vetus Testamentum
  40. The Westminster Theological Journal (WTJ)
  41. Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum/Journal of Ancient Christianity (ZAC)
  42. Zeitschrift für Die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft (ZAtW)
  43. Zeitschruft für Die Neuentestamentliche Wissenschaft (ZNtW)
  44. Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte (ZKG)
  45. Zeitschrift für Neuere Theologiegeschiche/Journal For the History of Modern Theology (JHMTH)
  46. Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche (ZThK)

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Abstracts & Out-of-Print Journals

  1. New Testament Abstracts (NTA)
  2. Old Testament Abstracts (OTA)
  3. Theologische Literaturzeitung (ThLZ)
  4. Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers *
  5. Semeia * (ran from 1972-25002)

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Journal Indices

  1. Journals, by Dr. Mark Goodacre’s NT Gateway.
  2. Religious Studies Web Guide, by Saundra Lipton, Librarian at University of Calgary.
  3. Brill Online: Books and Journals. This is Brill’s list of eight academic journals in the field of Biblical Studies.
  4. MMLJournalFeed – Theology There is not a lot of information on the “about” link, but this anonymous journal feed is massive and covers multiple subjects.

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Journal Indexing & Abstracting Services.

Thanks to Trinity Journal for the following list.

  1. ATLA Religion Index One: Periodicals
  2. Book Review Index, Gale Research Co.
  3. Bulletin signaletique
  4. Christian Periodical Index
  5. Current Book Review Citations
  6. Elenchus Bibliographicus Biblicus
  7. Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses: Elenchus Bibliographicus
  8. Internationale Zeitschriftenschau fur Bibelwissenschaft und Grenzgebiete
  9. Mosher Periodical Index
  10. National Periodical Library
  11. New Testament Abstracts
  12. Old Testament Abstracts
  13. Religious and Theological Abstracts
  14. University Microfilms Inc.
  15. Zeitschrifteninhaltsdienst Theologie: Indicies Theologici

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Monographs & Book Series

  1. Ancient Near East Monographs
  2. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft
  3. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft
  4. Cashiers de la Revue biblique
  5. Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series
  6. Études Biblique
  7. Jahrbuch für biblische Theologie
  8. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series (JSNTSup) (now known as the Library of New Testament Studies (LNTS))
  9. Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series
  10. Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series (1946-2001) (2002-)
  11. Society of Biblical Literature: various book series
  12. Writings from the Ancient World Supplement Series
  13. Writings from the Greco-Roman World Supplement Series

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Socio-Historical Studies

  1. Arnold, Bill T., ed. Windows to the Ancient World of the Hebrew Bible. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2014.
  2. Baker, David W. and Bill T. Arnold, eds. The Face of Old Testament Studies: A Survey of Contemporary Approaches. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1999.
  3. Balch, David L. and Carolyn Osiek, eds. Early Christian Families in Context: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003.
  4. Barton, John, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Biblical Interpretation. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998.
  5. Bird, Phyllis A. Missing Persons and Mistaken Identities: Women and Gender in Ancient Israel. Overtures to Biblical Theology. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1997.
  6. Carter, Charles E. and Carol L. Meyers, eds. Community, Identity, and Ideology: Social Science Approaches to the Hebrew Bible. SBTS vol. 6. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1996.
  7. Chalcraft, David J., ed. Social-Scientific Old Testament Criticism: A Sheffield Reader. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997.
  8. Clements, Ronald E. ed. The World of Ancient Israel: Sociological, Anthropological and Political Perspectives. Cambridge, 1989.
  9. Cline, Eric H. Biblical Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  10. Cohen, Shaye J. D. From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. Library of Early Christianity 7. Edited by Wayne A. Meeks. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1988.
  11. deSilva, David. Honor, Patronage, Kinship & Purity: Unlocking New Testament Culture. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2000.
  12. Esler, Philip F., ed.  Ancient Israel: The Old Testament in its Social Context.  Minneapolis: Fortress, 2006.
  13. Evans, Craig A., and Stanley Porter, ed. Dictionary of New Testament Background. The IVP Bible Dictionary Series. Downers Grove: lnterVarsity Press, 2000.
  14. Feldman, L.H. Jewish Life and Thought Among Greeks and Romans: Primary Readings. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996.
  15. Fitzgerald, John T. and Thomas H. Olbricht, Early Christianity and Classical Culture: Comparative Studies in Honor of Abraham J. Malherbe. Supplements to Novum Testamentum 110. Leiden: Brill, 2005.
  16. Gottwald, Norman K.  The Politics of Ancient Israel.  Library of Ancient Israel. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2001.
  17. Grant, Robert M. Gods and One God. Library of Early Christianity 1. Edited by Wayne A. Meeks. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1988.
  18. Green, Joel B. and Lee Martin McDonald, eds. The World of the New Testament; Cultural, Social, and Historical Contexts. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2013.
  19. Green, Joel B., ed. Hearing the New Testament. 2nd edition. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2010.
  20. Greer, Jonathan S., John W. Hilber, and John H. Walton, eds. Behind the Scenes of the Old Testament: Cultural, Social, and Historical Contexts. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2018.
  21. Greer, Rowan A. and James L. Kugel. Early Biblical Interpretation. Library of Early Christianity 3. Edited by Wayne A. Meeks. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1986.
  22. Horrell, David, ed. Social Scientific Approaches to New Testament Interpretation. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1999.
  23. Keener, Craig and John H. Walton, NIV Cultural Backgrounds Study Bible: Bringing to Life the Ancient World of Scripture. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2016
  24. Magness, Jodi. The Archaeology of Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002.
  25. ———-. Stone and Dung, Oil and Spit: Jewish Daily Life in the Time of Jesus. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2011.
  26. ———-. The Archaeology of the Holy Land: From the Destruction of Solomon’s Temple to Muslim Conquest. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
  27. Malherbe, Abraham J. Moral Exhortation: A Greco-Roman Sourcebook. Library of Early Christianity 4. Edited by Wayne A. Meeks. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1989.
  28. ———-. Social Aspects of Early Christianity. 2nd edition. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2003.
  29. Malina, Bruce J. The New Testament World: Insights from Cultural Anthropology. 3rd edition. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2001.
  30. Malina, Bruce and John J. Pilch. Social-Science Commentary on the Letters of Paul. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2006.
  31. ———-. Social-Science Commentary on the Deutero-Pauline Letters. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2013.
  32. Malul, Meir, Knowledge, Control, and Sex: Studies in Biblical thought, Culture, and Worldview. Tel Aviv: Archaeological Center Publication, 2002.
  33. Matthews, Victor H. and Don C. Benjamin. Social World of Ancient Israel 1250-587 BCE. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1993.
  34. McKnight, Scot and Grant R. Osborne, eds. The Face of New Testament Studies. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2004.
  35. Meeks, Wayne A. The Moral World of the First Christians. Library of Early Christianity 6. Edited by Wayne A. Meeks. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1986.
  36. ———-. The First Urban Christians: The Social World of the Apostle Paul. 2nd edition. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.
  37. Niehaus, Jeffrey J. Ancient Near Eastern Themes in Biblical Theology. Grand Rapids: Kreel, 2008.
  38. Osiek, Carolyn A. Families in the New Testament World: Households and House Churches. Family, Religion, and Culture. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1997.
  39. Overholt, Thomas W. Cultural Anthropology and the Old Testament. Guides to Biblical Scholarship. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996.
  40. Perdue, Leo G., et al. Families in Ancient Israel. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1997.
  41. Richards, E. Randolf and Brandon J. O’Brien. Misreading Scripture with Western Eyes: Removing Cultural Blinders to Better Understand the Bible. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2012.
  42. Rogerson, John W. Anthropology and the Old Testament. The Biblical Seminar. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1984.
  43. Schürer, Emil. The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Chris·t (175 BC-A.D. 135}. Revised and edited by Geza Vermes, Fergus Millar, and Matthew Black. 4 vol. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1973, 1979, 1986, 1987.
  44. Stambaugh, John E. and David L. Balch, The New Testament in Its Social Environment. Library of Early Christianity 2. Edited by Wayne A. Meeks. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1986.
  45. Stowers, Stanley E. Letter Writing in Greco-Roman Antiquity. Library of Early Christianity 5. Edited by Wayne A. Meeks. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1986.
  46. Walton, John H. Ancient Near Eastern Thought and the Old Testament: Introducing the Conceptual World of the Hebrew Bible. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2006.

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Literary Analysis

  1. Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Narrative. Basic Books, 1981.
  2. Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Poetry. Basic Books, 1985.
  3. Alter, Robert. The World of Biblical Literature. Basic Books, 1992.
  4. Alter, Robert and Frank Kermode (eds.) The Literary Guide to the Bible. Harvard University Press, 1987.
  5. Amit, Yairah. Reading Biblical Narratives: Literary Criticism and the Hebrew Bible. Fortress, 2001.
  6. Aune, David E. The New Testament in Its Literary Environment. Library of Early Christianity 8. Edited by Wayne A. Meeks. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1985.
  7. Baker, David W. and Bill T. Arnold, eds. The Face of Old Testament Studies: A Survey of Contemporary Approaches. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1999.
  8. Bar-Efrat, Shimon. Narrative Art in the Bible. Bible and Literature Series 17. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1989.
  9. Barton, John, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Biblical Interpretation. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998.
  10. Beale, G.K. Handbook on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament: Exegesis and Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2012.
  11. Beale, G. K. and D. A. Carson, eds. Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2007.
  12. Berlin, Adele. Poetics and Interpretation of Biblical Narrative. Sheffield: Almond, 1983.
  13. Fisch, Harold. Poetry with a Purpose: Biblical Poetics and Interpretation. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1988.
  14. Fokkelman, J.P. Reading Biblical Narrative: An Introductory Guide. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1999.
  15. Fokkelman, J. P. Reading Biblical Poetry. An Introductory Guide. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2001.
  16. Green, Joel B., ed. Hearing the New Testament. 2nd edition. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2010.
  17. Gunn, David M. and Danna Nolan Fewell. Narrative in the Hebrew Bible. The Oxford Bible Series. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
  18. Marguerat, Daniel and Yvan Bourquin. How to Read Bible Stories. Translated by John Bowden. London: SCM, 1999. Translation of Pour livre les récits bibliques. Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf, 1998.
  19. McKnight, Scot and Grant R. Osborne, eds. The Face of New Testament Studies. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2004.
  20. Ryken, Leland and Tremper Longman III (eds.). A Complete Literary Guide to the Bible. Zondervan, 1993.
  21. Sternberg, Meir. The Poetics of Biblical Narrative: Ideological Literature and the Drama of Reading. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1985.Lexica

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Linguistic Analysis

Greek-English Lexica

  1. Bauer, Walter. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 3rd ed. Edited and revised by F.W. Danker. Translated and adapted by W.F. Arndt, F.T. Gingrich, and F.W. Danker. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. (BDAG)
    • This edition is the newest and best revision of this lexicon. The older version is abbreviated (BAGD). The BDAG is the academic gold-standard for NT word-study.
  2. Louw, J. and E. Nida, eds. A Greek-English Lexicon based on Semantic Domains. 2nd ed. 2 vols. New York: United Bible Society, 1989. (L&N)
    • Unique among the standard Greek lexicons, this lexicon arranges the words of the GNT into 93 semantic domains. Since words can be listed across multiple domains, you will want to start by finding your word in the index, and then look into how the word functions within each semantic domain in which it is listed.
  3. Moulton, James H. and George Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament: Illustrated from the Papyri and other Non-Literary Sources. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1930. (Moulton-Milligan)
    • This gives you a word’s usage in the ancient world, based on non-literary texts such as papyri mss, inscriptions, etc. This type of evidence tends to give us a glimpse into how “regular people” used Greek words. It would be analogous to defining modern English words by using evidence from songs, emails, signs, notes, and certain types of blogs.
  4. Liddel, H.G., and R. Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. Rev. ed. Aug. by H.S. Jones. 9th rev. ed. Oxford: Clarendon 1996. (LSJ)
    • This is the academic gold-standard for Classical Greek. It does the same thing as BDAG, except it works with Classical as well as Koine Greek. Online at Perseus-Tufts.
  5. Mounce, William Dm. Mounce’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old & New Testament Words. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006.
    1. Arranges English words in English alphabetical order. Billing itself as the successor to Vine’s Expository Dictionary, Mounce’s dictionary is easy to read and has a number of helpful indices at the back. The dictionary itself does a very good job listing the biblical passages in which the Hebrew and Greek words are used. It does not provide diachronic context, but instead focuses on where the words have been used in the Biblical text.

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Hebrew-English Lexica

  1. Clines, David J. A. (ed.). The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew. 8 vols. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993-2016.
    • This is the newest and most ambitious Hebrew lexicon in a generation. Its scope includes not just the Hebrew Scriptures, but also the Dead Sea Scrolls, Ben Sira (Ecclesiasticus), and Hebrew inscriptions. Every Hebrew word from that literature is included, over 6,000 entries in all. At the end of each verbal entry is a list of nominal forms derived from that word, and at the end of each nominal entries is a list of derived verbal forms. Volume 9 of the original 8 volume set includes an English-Hebrew index, an index of synonyms, and a Word Frequency Table that distinguishes frequency within each of the for copora (Hebrew Bible, Ben Sira, Dead Sea Scrolls, Hebrew Inscriptions).
  2. Clines, David J. A. (ed.). The Concise Dictionary of Classical Hebrew. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2009.
    • This is an affordable condensation of the larger 8 volume set.
  3. Koehler, L. and W. Baumgartner, et al., eds.. The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 3rd ed. 5 vols. Brill, 1994-2001; Study edition, 2 vols. Brill, 2001. (HALOT)
    • This is one of the newer Hebrew lexicons. It is easy-to-use, easy-to-read, and is the academic gold-standard for OT word-study. The 2-volume Study Edition is an abridgment of the original, 5-volume, German version of the HALOT, composed by Koehler & Baumgartner.
  4. Holladay, William L. A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971.
  5. Brown, Francis, S. R. Driver, and C. A. Briggs, eds. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1907. (BDB)
    • For many, this is still the standard Hebrew lexicon. It was the gold-standard for a long time, but has been supplanted by newer lexicons. Because it arranges Hebrew words by their theoretical roots, and because it has not been updated since the turn of last century, it is a good, but not the best, Hebrew-English lexicon out there.
  6. De Blois, Reinier, and Enio R. Mueller, eds. Semantic Dictionary of Biblical Hebrew. United Bible Societies. 2017. http://www.sdbh.org/dictionary/main.php?language=en. (SBDH)
  7. Mounce, William Dm. Mounce’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old & New Testament Words. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006.
    1. Arranges English words in English alphabetical order. Billing itself as the successor to Vine’s Expository Dictionary, Mounce’s dictionary is easy to read and has a number of helpful indices at the back. The dictionary itself does a very good job listing the biblical passages in which the Hebrew and Greek words are used. It does not provide diachronic context, but instead focuses on where the words have been used in the Biblical text.

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Greek-English Theological Lexica

  1. Brown, Colin, ed. The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology. 4 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1975-1978. (NIDNTT)
    • Arranges words in English, in English alphabetical order. Not comprehensive, but discusses words of major theological significance. This series was revised in the Moises Silva 2014 edition, signified by the acronym NIDNTTE.
  2. Silva, Moisés, New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis. 5 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2014.
  3. Spicq, Ceslas. Theological Lexicon of the New Testament. Translated by James Ernest. 3 vols. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1994.
    • Arranges Greek words in Greek alphabetical order. Selective in the words it discusses, but the discussions are helpful.
  4. Balz, Horst, and Gerhard Schneider, Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament. 3 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990.  (EDNT)
    • Arranges Greek words in Greek alphabetical order. Selective in the words it discusses, but the discussions are quite helpful.
  5. Kittel, Gerhard, and Gerhard Friedrich, eds. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Translated and Edited by G. W. Bromiley. 10 volumes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964-1976. (Kittel, 1 vol. ed. aka Little Kittel)
    • Arranges Greek words in Greek alphabetical order. Multi-volume, thorough discussion of important New Testament words. Definitions are discussed by time period (e.g., Classic Greek and Hellenism; Judaism; NT). The criticism of this work is that it tends to be imprecise about contexts. It does a fine job with diachronic analysis, but does not do so well with synchronic analysis. This is a good source to get a broad sense of the ways a word has been used, but it is not consistently reliable for defining the parameters of how the NT limits the semantic domain.
  6. Gilbrant, Thoralf, and Ralph W. Harris, eds. Complete Biblical Library. 39 vols. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House.
    • This is a multivolume series of interlinear Old Testament and New Testament books. Words are assigned numbers that correspond to the multi-volume Hebrew and Greek lexicons that are part of the set. It is a quick and helpful way to get a concise survey of the Greek and Hebrew words used in the Bible, even if the Greek text is the Textus Receptus.

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Hebrew-English Theological Lexica

  1. VanGemeren, W.A. New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis. Carlisle: Paternoster, 1997. (NIDOTTE)
    • Arranges Hebrew words in Hebrew alefbetical order, (and not by their English translation.) If you don’t read Hebrew, then you can still find words by looking in the indexes in volume 5, or in the topical dictionary in volume 4.
  2. Jenni, Ernst, and Claus Westermann. Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament. 3 vols. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1997.
    • Arranges Hebrew words in Hebrew alefbetical order. Selective in the words it discusses, but the discussions are quite helpful.
  3. Harris, R. Laird, Archer, and Bruce Waltke. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. 2 vols. Chicago: Moody Press, 1980. (TWOT)
    • This original English composition is a very good place to start your word study. The index at the end of volume 2 is keyed to Strong’s numbering system.
  4. Botterweck, Johannes, and Helmer Ringgren. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Revised edition. Translated by John T. Willis. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975. (TDOT)
    • This is the Hebrew companion to Kittel’s TDNT. The original German of the TDOT was composed from 1970-1995, and, like it’s English counterpart, was a multivolume work.
  5. Gilbrant, Thoralf, and Ralph W. Harris, eds. Complete Biblical Library. 39 vols. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House.
    • This is a multivolume series of interlinear Old Testament and New Testament books. Words are assigned numbers that correspond to the multi-volume Hebrew and Greek lexicons that are part of the set. It is a quick and helpful way to get a concise survey of the Greek and Hebrew words used in the Bible, even if the Greek text is the Textus Receptus.

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Concordances

  • “Exhaustive” Concordance = Every word, every occurrence
  • “Complete” Concordance    = Every word, not every occurrence
  • “Analytical” Concordance  = word & occurrence, also indicating which original word in which occurrence stands behind the English translation.
  1. Moulton, W.F., A.S. Geden, and H.K. Moulton. A Concordance to the Greek Testament. 5th ed. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1978; repr. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1997.
    • This lists Greek words in Greek alphabetical order according to their occurrence in the New Testament.
  2. Strong, James. The New Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. New York: Eaton & Mains, 1990.  (Strong’s)
    • Lists English words in English alphabetical order. This concordance lists every English word of the KJV New Testament, followed by examples of each occurrence. The back of the book has a Hebrew-English and Greek-English dictionary, listing the underlying Hebrew or Greek word. Each word in the original language is assigned a number. Because of the popularity of the KJV and Strong’s concordance, these “Strong’s Numbers” are widely used in interlinears and other sources targeted to non-Hebrew/Greek reading people.
  3. Kohlenberger, John R. and James A. Swanson, The Hebrew-English Concordance to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1998.
    1. Hebrew words in Hebrew alphabetical order, based on the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia 4th ed.
  4. Goodrick, Edward W. and John R. Kohlenberger III, eds. NIV Exhaustive Concordance. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990.
    • This does the same thing as the Strong’s, but is based on the English of the NIV, not the KJV.
  5. Kohlenberger, John R., III, ed. The NRSV Concordance Unabridged, Including the Apocryphal/ Deuterocanonical Books. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1991.
    • This does the same as Strong’s, but is based on the English of the NRSV.

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 Online Lexical Sources

  1. The “Online Bibles” post on this website is an annotated bibliography of free, online resources that include Greek & Hebrew lexicons.
  2. http://www.stepbible.org The Hebrew & Greek loads smoothly. Mouse over a word and the gloss appears quickly. If you don’t have the Hebrew or Greek text available to you, this is the website I’d recommend you use.
  3. http://www.biblewebapp.com/reader/ This is John Dyer’s excellent Greek-English & Hebrew-English webpage for the Bible. The “Study” page has Greek/Hebrew on one side, and English on the other. The “Reader” page is only Greek or Hebrew, but mousing over a word will cause the full parsing & definition to pop up.
  4. http://www.2LetterLookup.com/  You type in the first couple letters of a word, and it will list all possible words that begin with those letters. Find the word, click on it, and it’ll take you to a good lexicon.
  5. http://www.biblestudytools.com/lexicons/hebrew/ This is an Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon. You can enter a Strong’s Number, or Hebrew word, or English word, and it will give you basic definitions, based on the Brown, Driver, & Briggs (BDB) Lexicon. You can also go to http://www.biblestudytools.com, click on the “Lexicons” link, and find the New Testament Greek link. That will take you to a Lexicon based on the Thayer’s and Smith’s Bible Dictionary. Both the Hebrew and the Greek Lexica contain links that will play an audio clip of the word you’ve selected.   
  6. http://www.biblestudytools.net/Lexicons/NewTestamentGreek/ This is another helpful online Greek lexicon. It uses Thayer’s and other reputable lexicons for its definitions.
  7. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/lexindex?entry=fe/rw Online “Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon of Classical Greek” at www.Perseus.Tufts.edu
  8. http://www.scripture4all.org This contains links and free downloads of a Greek New Testament Interlinear, and Hebrew Old Testament Interlinear Bible. The Greek text is based on the Nestle-Aland 26/27, while the Hebrew text is based on the Westminster Leningrad Codex.
  9. http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0.htm This is an interlinear Hebrew-English OT. 

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Primary Sources (Ancient Texts)

Ancient Near Eastern Literature

  1. Arnold, Bill T. and Bryan E. Beyer, eds. Readings from the Ancient Near East: Primary Sources for Old Testament Study. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2002.
  2. Chavalas, Mark W., ed. Women in the Ancient Near East. Routledge Sourcebooks for the Ancient World. New York: Routledge, 2014.
  3. ———-, ed. The Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation. Blackwell Sourcebooks in Ancient History. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2006.
  4. Coogan, Michael D. A Reader of Ancient Near Eastern Texts: Sources for the Study of the Old Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
  5. Coogan, Michael D. and Mark S. Smith, eds. Stories from Ancient Canaan. 2nd edition. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2012.
  6. Dietrich, Manfried, Oswald Loretz, and Joaquin Sanmartin. Die keilalphabetischen Texte aus Ugarit, Ras Ibn Hani und anderen Orten (The Cuneiform alphabetic texts from Ugarit, Ras Ibn Hani and other places). 3rd enlarged edition. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2013. (KTU, English abbreviation CAT)
  7. Hallo, William W., ed. The Context of Scripture. 3 vols. Leiden: Brill, 1997-2002.  Volume 1: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World; Volume 2: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Volume 3: Archival Documents from the Biblical World. Leiden: Brill, 1997-2000. (COS)
  8. Hays, Christopher B. Hidden Riches: A Sourcebook for the Comparative Study of the Hebrew Bible and Ancient Near East. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2014.
  9. Matthews, Victor H. and Don C. Benjamin, Old Testament Parallels: Laws and Stories from the Ancient Near East. Revised and Expanded 3d ed. New York: Paulist, 2006.
  10. Pritchard, James B., ed. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. 3rd ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969. (ANET)
  11. Society of Biblical Literature Writings from the Ancient World.
  12. Sparks, Kenton. Ancient Texts for the Study of the Hebrew Bible: A Guide to the Background Literature. Peabody: Hendrickson, 2005.
  13. Walton, John H. Ancient Israelite Literature in its Cultural Context: A Survey of Parallels between Biblica and ancient Near Eastern Texts. Grand Rapids: Regency Reference Library, 1990.
  14. Wyatt, N. Religious Texts from Ugarit: The Words of Ilimilku and his Colleagues. 2nd edition. The Biblical Seminar 53. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic, 1998.

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Introduction to Jewish Literature

  1. Chapman, David W. and Andreas J. Köstenberger, ”Jewish Intertestamental and Early Rabbinic Literature; An Annotated Bibliographic Resource,” JETS 43 (2000): 577-618.
  2. Cohen, Shaye J.D. From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. 3rd edition. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2014.
  3. Helyer, Larry R. Exploring Jewish Literature of the Second Temple Period: A Guide for New Testament Students. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2002.
  4. Nickelsburg, George W.E., Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1981.
  5. Stone, Michael E., ed. Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period. CRINT 2. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984.

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OT Apocrypha

  1. deSilva, David A. The Jewish Teachers of Jesus, James, and Jude: What Earliest Christianity Learned from the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. Cambridge: Oxford, 2012.
  2. ———-. Introducing the Apocrypha: Message, Context, and Significance. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002.
  3. Kirby, Peter. “Early Jewish Writings.” Online: www.earlyjewishwritings.com
    • Includes access to free, online versions of the Deuterocanonical Literature, Pseudepigrapha, Philo, and Josephus.
  4. Metzger, Bruce M. ”Introduction to the Apocrypha.” Pages xi-xxii in the Oxford Annotated Apocrypha. Expanded and revised edition. Edited by Bruce M. Metzger. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
  5. Reddish, Mitchell G., ed. Apocalyptic Literature: A Reader. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1995.
  6. Sparks, H.F.D., The Apocryphal Old Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.

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OT Pseudepigrapha

  1. Charlesworth, James H. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. 2 vols. Garden City: Doubleday, 1985.
  2. Kirby, Peter. “Early Jewish Writings.” Online: www.earlyjewishwritings.com
    • Includes access to free, online versions of the Deuterocanonical Literature, Pseudepigrapha, Philo, and Josephus.

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Septuagint (LXX)

  1. Brenton, Lancelot Charles Lee. The Septuagint Version of the Old Testament: English Translation. London: Samuel Bagster and Sons, 1870.
  2. Jobes, Karen H. and Moises Silva. Invitation to the Septuagint. 2nd edition. Baker: Grand Rapids, 2015.
  3. Pietersma, Albert and Benjamin G., eds. WrightA New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included under that Title. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  4. Rahlfs, A. Septuaginta. 2 vols. 9th ed. Stuttgart: Württembergische Bibelanstalt, 1984.
  5. Septuagint Commentary Series. Boston: Brill.
  6. Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum Auctoritate Academiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1931-1990.
  7. Tov, Emmanuel, The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research: Completely Revised and Expanded Third Edition.  Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2015.

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Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS)

  1. Charlesworth, James , ed. The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls, 3 vols. Waco: Baylor University Press, 2006.
  2. Charlesworth, James H., e.d. John and the Dead Sea Scrolls. New York: Crossroad, 1990.
  3. “Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library” Online: http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/browse/dead-sea-scrolls-electronic-library-biblical-texts. This resource is behind a paywall.
  4. “The Digital Dead Sea Scrolls.” Online: http://dss.collections.imj.org.il/
  5. “The Lean Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library.” Online: https://www.deadseascrolls.org.il/?locale=en_US
  6. Schiffman, Lawrence H. and James C. VanderKam. “Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls.” Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  7. VanderKam, James The Dead Sea Scrolls Today. 2nd edition. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2010.
  8. Vermes, Geza. The Dead Sea Scrolls: Qumran in Perspective. Revised edition. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1997.
  9. ———-, The Dead Sea Scrolls in English. London: Penguin, 1987

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Josephus

  1. Kirby, Peter. “Early Jewish Writings.” Online: www.earlyjewishwritings.com
    • Includes access to free, online versions of the Deuterocanonical Literature, Pseudepigrapha, Philo, and Josephus.
  2. Mason, Steve. Josephus and the New Testament. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1992.
  3. Thackeray, H. St. J., et al., Josephus. 10 vols. LCL. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1926-1965.
  4. Whiston, W. The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987.

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Philo

  1. Colson, F.H., et al. Philo. 12 vols. LCL. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1929-1953.
  2. Yonge, C.D. The Works of Philo: Complete and Unabridged. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1993.
  3. Kirby, Peter. “Early Jewish Writings.” Online: www.earlyjewishwritings.com
    • Includes access to free, online versions of the Deuterocanonical Literature, Pseudepigrapha, Philo, and Josephus.

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New Testament Apocrypha

  1. Elliot, J.K. The Apocryphal New Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1993.
  2. Schneemelcher, Wilhelm. New Testament Apocrypha. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1991-1992.

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Greco-Roman Literature

  1. Loeb Classical Library. Harvard University Press.
    • This contains the works of primary source authors from roughly 700 BCE to 600 CE.  From the website – “The Loeb Classical Library is the only series of books, which, through original text and English translation, gives access to all that is important in Greek and Latin literature…in short, our entire classical heritage is represented here in convenient and well-printed pocked volumes in which an up-to-date text and accurate and literature English translation face each other page by page.” The series is continually adding new volumes and revising old ones. New books cost $24. There are hundreds of them.]
  2. Barrett, C.K., ed. The New Testament Background: Writings from Ancient Greece and Roman Empire that Illuminate Christian Origins. Rev. ed. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1995.
  3. Betz, H.D. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, Including the Demotic Spells. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
  4. Cooley, Alison E. The Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigaphy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
  5. Beard, M, J. North, and S. Price. Religions of Rome. Vol. 2. A Sourcebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.  
  6. Elwell, Walter A. and Robert W. Yarbrough, Readings from the First-Century World: Primiary Sources for New Testament Study. Grand Rapids: Baker 1998.
  7. Evans Craig A. Ancient Texts for New Testament Studies: A Guide to the Background Literature. Peabody: Hendrickson, 2005.
  8. Grant, F. C. Ancient Roman Religion. The Library of Religion. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1957.
  9. Grant, F.C. Hellenistic Religions: The Age of Syncretism. The Library of Religion. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1953.
  10. “the Internet Classics Archive.” Online: http://classica.mit.edu/index.html
    • This contains primary sources from “a list of 441 works of classical literature by 59 different authors…Mainly Greco-Roman works (some Chinese and Persian), all in English translation.” It includes authors such as Philo, Josephus, Tacitus, Thucydides, and Homer.
  11. Kennedy, George A. Progymnasmata: Greek Textbooks of Prose Composition and Rhetoric. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003.
  12. Klauck, H.-J. The Religious Context of Early Christianity: A Guide to Graeco-Roman Religions. Translated B. McNeil. Studies of the New Testament and Its World. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000.
  13. Ogden, D. Magic, Witchcraft, an Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. This contains over 300 primary-source texts on its topic.
  14. “Perseus Digital Library.” Online: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu
    • This is probably the best source for ancient, primary sources. It provides both the original Latin or Greek works, as well in English translation. You can set the original languages to hyperlink all of the Greek/Latin words, so when you click on them, it will take you to the appropriate entry from the Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon.
  15. Rose, H.J. A Handbook of Greek Literature from Homer to the Age of Lucian. New York, 1961. This is not a primary source, but will help you navigate the vast body of literature.
  16. Rose, H.J. A Handbook of Latin Literature form the Earliest Times to the Death of St. Augustine. New York, 1949.
    • These two works by Rose are excellent, readable, introductions to classical literature, which is the literature that comprises the Greco-Roman literary environment of the New Testament. Since Greek, not Latin, was the dominant language of the Eastern Roman Empire, you should probably start becoming conversant with the Greek literature of the time, even though both are important.
  17. Smith, Daniel Lynwood. Into the World of the New Testamnt: Greco-Roman and Jewish Texts and Contexts. London: T&T Clark, 2015.
  18. “LacusCurtius: Into the Roman World.” Online: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/home.html
    • This site contains the original Greek or Latin, as well as English translations, of over 40 authors from the ancient world.
  19. “The Latin Library.” Online: http://www.thelatinlibrary.com

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Numismatics

  1. Hendin, David. Guide to Biblical Coins. 5th ed. New York: Amphora, 2001.
  2. Meshorer, Ya’akov. A Treasury of Jewish Coins. New York: Amphora, 2001.
  3. Bressett, Kenneth. Money in the Bible. Atlanta: Whitman, 2007.

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Apostolic Fathers

  1. Holmes, Michael W. The Apostolic Fathers: Greek Texts and English Translations. 3rd edition. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2007.
  2. Roberts, Alexander, and James Donaldson, eds. The Ante-Nicene Fathers. 1885-1887. 10 vols. Reprint. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1994.
  3. Schaff, Philip, ed. The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers. 1886-1889. 14 vols. Reprint. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1995.
  4. www.ccel.org “Christian Classica Ethereal Library” This is library of full-text resources, from the time of the apostles onwards.
  5. www.earlychristianwritings.com, by Peter Kirby, includes access to free, online versions of the NT Apocrypha, Gnostic Literature, and Early Church Fathers

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Resources to Avoid in a Research Paper

Avoid the following resources in an academic research paper. They are listed on every website’s Commentaries list because they are old and out of copyright. They were written before the English-speaking world knew that Biblical Greek was common 1st century Greek (i.e., Koine Greek; see Deissmann, 1901); before the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered and published in their entirety (1947-1991); and before the horrors of the Holocaust led to a more nuanced analysis of Judaism from New Testament scholarship as a whole (1945). In the USA, these works were also written before the 19th Amendment guaranteed women the right to vote (1920) and before the Civil Rights Act ended legal segregation based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin (1964). Works written before these events will reflect their social location and biases thereto. Though helpful in some ways, (e.g., familiarity with classical Greek and Roman literature), these works predate the current state of knowledge and expertise and are therefore inappropritae for nearly all research purposes.

For example, regarding the Matthew Henry Commentary series, Warren Wiersbe clarifies that “Matthew’s purpose in writing the Commentary was practical, not academic. [After Matthew passed away,] several of his pastor friends gathered up his notes and sermons and completed the Commentary from Romans to Revelation. When you read their expositions, you can see how far short they fall of the high standard set by the original author” (50 People Every Christian Should Know, 27). Yet even regarding Matthew’s own work in the Commentary, Wiersbe continues, “there were times when he spiritualized the text and missed the point; but generally speaking, he did his work well…[Yet] you will not find Matthew Henry grappling with big problems as he expounds the Word, or always shedding light on difficult passages in the Bible. For this kind of help you must consult the critical commentaries. He did not know a great deal about customs in the Holy Land…the student will need up-to-date commentaries and Bible dictionaries to help him [or her] in that area” (50 People, 28).

  1. Barnes, Albert, New Testament Notes, 1832.
  2. Clarke, Adam. Adam Clarke’s Commentary on the Bible, 1831.
  3. Easton, Matthew George. Easton’s Bible Dictionary, 1897.
  4. Geneva Study Bible, 1560. 
  5. Gill, John. Exposition of the Bible, 1746-63.
  6. Henry, Matthew, Matthew Henry Commentary on the Whole Bible, 1706-10.
  7. Jamieson, Robert, A.R. Fausset, David Brown. Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, 1871.
  8. Johnson, Barton Warren. People’s New Testament, 1891.
  9. Lange, Johann Peter. Philip Schaff, transl. Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Critical, Doctrinal, and Homiletical, 1867-1900.
  10. Orr, James, ed. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia,1915. (The Geoffrey Bromiley ISBE is from 1995, so it would make a good resource for your research. Note which version of the ISBE you are using.)
  11. Smith, William. Smith’s Bible Dictionary, 1863.

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